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Journal Articles Plant Physiology Year : 2022

Insight into the control of nodule immunity and senescence during Medicago truncatula symbiosis

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Abstract

Medicago (Medicago truncatula) establishes a symbiosis with the rhizobia Sinorhizobium sp, resulting in the formation of nodules where the bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen. The loss of immunity repression or early senescence activation compromises symbiont survival and leads to the formation of nonfunctional nodules (fix−). Despite many studies exploring an overlap between immunity and senescence responses outside the nodule context, the relationship between these processes in the nodule remains poorly understood. To investigate this phenomenon, we selected and characterized three Medicago mutants developing fix− nodules and showing senescence responses. Analysis of specific defense (PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEIN) or senescence (CYSTEINE PROTEASE) marker expression demonstrated that senescence and immunity seem to be antagonistic in fix− nodules. The growth of senescence mutants on non-sterile (sand/perlite) substrate instead of sterile in vitro conditions decreased nodule senescence and enhanced defense, indicating that environment can affect the immunity/senescence balance. The application of wounding stress on wild-type (WT) fix+ nodules led to the death of intracellular rhizobia and associated with co-stimulation of defense and senescence markers, indicating that in fix+ nodules the relationship between the two processes switches from opposite to synergistic to control symbiont survival during response to the stress. Our data show that the immune response in stressed WT nodules is linked to the repression of DEFECTIVE IN NITROGEN FIXATION 2 (DNF2), Symbiotic CYSTEINE-RICH RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SymCRK), and REGULATOR OF SYMBIOSOME DIFFERENTIATION (RSD), key genes involved in symbiotic immunity suppression. This study provides insight to understand the links between senescence and immunity in Medicago nodules. Analyses of Medicago mutants with non-functional nodules highlight the relationship and mechanisms controlling the establishment of the immune and senescence programs during nodule organogenesis.
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hal-03876300 , version 1 (28-11-2022)

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Fathi Berrabah, Gautier Bernal, Ait-Salem Elhosseyn, Cyrille El Kassis, Roxane l'Horset, et al.. Insight into the control of nodule immunity and senescence during Medicago truncatula symbiosis. Plant Physiology, In press, 18 p. ⟨10.1093/plphys/kiac505⟩. ⟨hal-03876300⟩
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