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The 2022 Magneto-Optics Roadmap

Alexey Kimel 1 Anatoly Zvezdin 2 Sangeeta Sharma 3 Samuel Shallcross 3 Nuno De Sousa 4 Antonio Garcia-Martin 5 Georgeta Salvan 6 Jaroslav Hamrle 7 Ondrej Stejskal 7 Jeffrey Mccord 8 Silvia Tacchi 9 Giovanni Carlotti 9 Pietro Gambardella 10 Gian Salis 11 Markus Muenzenberg 12 Martin Schultze 13 Vasily Temnov 14 Igor Bychkov 15 Leonid Kotov 16 Nicolò Maccaferri 17, 18 Daria Ignatyeva 19, 20 Vladimir Belotelov 19, 20 Claire Donnelly 21 Aurelio Hierro Rodriguez 22, 23 Iwao Matsuda 24 Thierry Ruchon 25, 26 Mauro Fanciulli 25, 27, 26 Maurizio Sacchi 28, 29 Chunhui Rita Du 30, 31 Hailong Wang 31 N. Peter Armitage 32 Mathias Schubert 33, 34 Vanya Darakchieva 35, 34 Bilu Liu 36 Ziyang Huang 36 Baofu Ding 36, 37 Andreas Berger 38 Paolo Vavassori 38, 39 
26 ATTO - Attophysique
IRAMIS - Institut Rayonnement Matière de Saclay, LIDyl - Laboratoire Interactions, Dynamiques et Lasers (ex SPAM)
Abstract : Magneto-optical effects, viz. magnetically induced changes in light intensity or polarization upon reflection from or transmission through a magnetic sample, were discovered over a century and a half ago. Initially they played a crucially relevant role in unveiling the fundamentals of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics. A more broad-based relevance and wide-spread use of magneto-optical methods, however, remained quite limited until the 1960s due to a lack of suitable, reliable and easy- to-operate light sources. The advent of Laser technology and the availability of other novel light sources led to an enormous expansion of magneto-optical measurement techniques and applications that continues to this day (see Section 1). The here-assembled roadmap article is intended to provide a meaningful survey over many of the most relevant recent developments, advances, and emerging research directions in a rather condensed form, so that readers can easily access a significant overview about this very dynamic research field. While light source technology and other experimental developments were crucial in the establishment of today’s magneto-optics, progress also relies on an ever-increasing theoretical understanding of magneto-optical effects from a quantum mechanical perspective (see Section 2), as well as using electromagnetic theory and modelling approaches (see Section 3) to enable quantitatively reliable predictions for ever more complex materials, metamaterials, and device geometries. The latest advances in established magneto-optical methodologies and especially the utilization of the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) are presented in effect in 2D materials). In addition, magneto-optical effects are now being investigated and utilized in spectral ranges, to which they originally seemed completely foreign, as those of synchrotron radiation X-rays (see Section 14 on 3D magnetic characterization and Section 16 on light beams carrying orbital angular momentum) and, very recently, the terahertz regime (see Section 18 on THz MOKE and Section 19 on THz ellipsometry for electron paramagnetic resonance detection). Magneto-optics also demonstrates its strength in a unique way when combined with femtosecond laser pulses (see Section 10 on ultrafast MOKE and Section 15 on magneto-optics using X-ray free electron lasers), facilitating the very active field of time- resolved magneto-optical spectroscopy that enables investigations of phenomena like spin relaxation of nonequilibrium photoexcited carriers, transient modifications of ferromagnetic order, and photo- induced dynamic phase transitions, to name a few. Recent progress in nanoscience and nanotechnology, which is intimately linked to the achieved impressive ability to reliably fabricate materials and functional structures at the nanoscale, now enables the exploitation of strongly enhanced magneto-optical effects induced by light-matter interaction at the nanoscale (see Section 12 on magnetoplasmonics and Section 13 on magneto- optical metasurfaces). Magneto-optical effects are also at the very heart of powerful magnetic characterization techniques like Brillouin light scattering and time-resolved pump-probe measurements for the study of spin waves (see Section 7), their interactions with acoustic waves (see Section 11), and ultra-sensitive magnetic field sensing applications based on Nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond (see Section 17). Despite our best attempt to represent the field of magneto-optics accurately and do justice to all its novel developments and its diversity, the research area is so extensive and active that there remains great latitude in deciding what to include in an article of this sort, which in turn means that some areas might not be adequately represented here. However, we feel that the 20 sections that form this 2022 Magneto-Optics Roadmap article, each written by experts in the field and addressing a specific subject on only two pages, provide an accurate snapshot of where this research field stands today. Correspondingly, it should act as a valuable reference point and guideline for emerging research directions in modern magneto-optics, as well as illustrate the directions this research field might take in the foreseeable future.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, August 31, 2022 - 11:44:13 AM
Last modification on : Friday, September 30, 2022 - 9:40:08 AM

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Alexey Kimel, Anatoly Zvezdin, Sangeeta Sharma, Samuel Shallcross, Nuno De Sousa, et al.. The 2022 Magneto-Optics Roadmap. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, IOP Publishing, 2022, ⟨10.1088/1361-6463/ac8da0⟩. ⟨hal-03765500⟩

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