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Etoposide, an anticancer drug involved in therapy-related secondary leukemia: Enzymes at play

Abstract : Etoposide is a semi-synthetic glycoside derivative of podophyllotoxin, also known as VP-16. It is a widely used anticancer medicine in clinics. Unfortunately, high doses or long-term etoposide treatment can induce therapyrelated leukemia. The mechanism by which etoposide induces secondary hematopoietic malignancies is still unclear. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms of etoposide induced therapy-related leukemia. Etoposide related leukemogenesis is known to depend on reactive oxidative metabolites of etoposide, notably etoposide quinone, which interacts with cellular proteins such as topoisomerases II (TOP2), CREB-binding protein (CREBBP), and T-Cell Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (TCPTP). CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 metabolize etoposide to etoposide catechol, which readily oxidizes to etoposide quinone. As a poison of TOP2 enzymes, etoposide and its metabolites induce DNA double-stranded breaks (DSB), and the accumulation of DSB triggers cell apoptosis. If the cell survives, the DSB gives rise to the likelihood of faulty DNA repair events. The gene translocation could occur in mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene, which is well-known in leukemogenesis. Recently, studies have revealed that etoposide metabolites, especially etoposide quinone, can covalently bind to cysteines residues of CREBBP and TCPTP enzymes, . This leads to enzyme inhibition and further affects histone acetylation and phosphorylation of the JAK-STAT pathway, thus putatively altering the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). In brief, current studies suggest that etoposide and its metabolites contribute to etoposide therapy-related leukemia through TOP2 mediated DSB and impairs specific enzyme activity, such as CREBBP and TCPTP.
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https://hal-cnrs.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03677384
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Submitted on : Tuesday, November 15, 2022 - 2:08:38 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, November 23, 2022 - 3:23:33 AM

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Wenchao Zhang, Panhong Gou, Jean-Marie Dupret, Christine Chomienne, Fernando Rodrigues-Lima. Etoposide, an anticancer drug involved in therapy-related secondary leukemia: Enzymes at play. Translational Oncology, 2021, 14 (10), ⟨10.1016/j.tranon.2021.101169⟩. ⟨hal-03677384⟩

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