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Paternal High-Protein Diet Programs Offspring Insulin Sensitivity in a Sex-Specific Manner

Abstract : The impact of maternal nutrition on offspring is well documented. However, the implication of pre-conceptional paternal nutrition on the metabolic health of the progeny remains underexplored. Here, we investigated the impact of paternal high-protein diet (HPD, 43.2% protein) consumption on the endocrine pancreas and the metabolic phenotype of offspring. Male Wistar rats were given HPD or standard diet (SD, 18.9% protein) for two months. The progenies (F1) were studied at fetal stage and in adulthood. Body weight, glycemia, glucose tolerance (GT), glucose-induced insulin secretion in vivo (GIIS) and whole-body insulin sensitivity were assessed in male and female F1 offspring. Insulin sensitivity, GT and GIIS were similar between F1 females from HPD (HPD/F1) and SD fathers (SD/F1). Conversely, male HPD/F1 exhibited increased insulin sensitivity (p < 0.05) and decreased GIIS (p < 0.05) compared to male SD/F1. The improvement of insulin sensitivity in HPD/F1 was sustained even after 2 months of high-fat feeding. In male HPD/F1, the beta cell mass was preserved and the beta cell plasticity, following metabolic challenge, was enhanced compared to SD/F1. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence of a sex-specific impact of paternal HPD on the insulin sensitivity and GIIS of their descendants, demonstrating that changes in paternal nutrition alter the metabolic status of their progeny in adulthood.
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https://hal-cnrs.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03677207
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Submitted on : Tuesday, May 24, 2022 - 3:15:11 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, June 25, 2022 - 3:44:18 AM

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Pengfei Gong, Danielle Bailbe, Lola Bianchi, Gaelle Pommier, Junjun Liu, et al.. Paternal High-Protein Diet Programs Offspring Insulin Sensitivity in a Sex-Specific Manner. Biomolecules, MDPI, 2021, 11 (5), ⟨10.3390/biom11050751⟩. ⟨hal-03677207⟩

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