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Analyse rétrospective des données de 170 nouveau-nés de mères consommatrices de substances psychoactives

Abstract : Objectives To analyze neonatal morbidity in a single-center retrospective cohort (1999–2008) according to the mothers’ polydrug use and to the social and demographic context. Material and methods One hundred and seventy newborns were identified whose mothers used two or more substances (such as heroin, cocaine, opioid maintenance treatment, tobacco, alcohol, hashish, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, or other psychotropics) at the beginning of their pregnancies. The database included 168 sociodemographic variables describing mothers’ living conditions and their drug-abuse characteristics; perinatal variables such as gestational age, weight, neonatal abstinence syndrome, and modalities of discharge; and correlations with the main neonatal morbidities. Results The mothers’ mean age at delivery was 31.6 yrs. It was the first pregnancy for 35.2% of the mothers but the mean number of previous abortions was 1.14 and 16.3% already had previous children in foster care. At delivery only 8.2% used only one product, 52.9% 2 or 3 products, and 37.6% four or more substances. All sociodemographic variables, the deprivation score, the number of previous abortions and miscarriages, and poor prenatal monitoring were significantly different for the mothers using four products or more. The uses changed along the years of study: fewer mothers used heroin but more used hashish, combined with other substances. The medical care also changed: greater participation on the part of mothers in neonatal care, more frequent breastfeeding, less medication for neonatal abstinence syndrome with the same severity score: i.e., 45.5% of infants with a Lipsitz score between 8 and 12 received a morphine treatment in 1999–2000 versus only 5.5% in 2005–2006 and none in 2007–2008. The mean gestational age was 38.1 weeks. Preterm births (22.2%) and intrauterine growth restriction (18% with birth weight <10th percentile) were mainly correlated with the number of substances at delivery (17.3% preterm if three substances or less and 31.3% if four substances or more; p < 0.001), social deprivation, poor prenatal care, and mothers having gained less than 5 kg in weight during pregnancy (57.1% of intrauterine growth restriction versus 14.5%). Birth weight, height, and head circumference were significantly different for mothers having drunken alcohol. Among the newborns, seven showed complete fetal alcohol syndrome. The neonatal abstinence syndrome severity (23% with a Lipsitz score > 9, one-quarter of whom were medicated with morphine) was correlated with an in-utero exposure to opiates, mainly in combination with benzodiazepines, and with the use of four or more substances. The mean age of infants at discharge was 18.1 days (SD 3.39): 21.1% stayed 30 days or more in the hospital, mainly because of prematurity or intrauterine growth restriction, a high neonatal abstinence syndrome score, maternal polydrug use, psychosocial deprivation, or foster care placement decisions. Decisions for foster care placement (15%) applied to polydrug users, with social deprivation, undermonitored pregnancies, or bonding difficulties. Conclusion The main factors correlated with poor neonatal results were polydrug use, maternal psychiatric pathologies, and social deprivation. Overall, prenatal and postnatal care such as rooming-in improved the results.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 14, 2021 - 10:32:51 AM
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C Lejeune, Louise Genest, E Miossec, A-M Simonpoli, Laurence Simmat-Durand. Analyse rétrospective des données de 170 nouveau-nés de mères consommatrices de substances psychoactives. Archives de Pédiatrie, 2013, 20 (2), pp.146-155. ⟨10.1016/j.arcped.2012.11.014⟩. ⟨hal-03478912⟩



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