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The Worldwide Invasion of Drosophila suzukii Is Accompanied by a Large Increase of Transposable Element Load and a Small Number of Putatively Adaptive Insertions

Abstract : Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous and mobile repeated sequences. They are major determinants of host fitness. Here, we characterized the TE content of the spotted wing fly Drosophila suzukii. Using a recently improved genome assembly, we reconstructed TE sequences de novo and found that TEs occupy 47% of the genome and are mostly located in gene-poor regions. The majority of TE insertions segregate at low frequencies, indicating a recent and probably ongoing TE activity. To explore TE dynamics in the context of biological invasions, we studied the variation of TE abundance in genomic data from 16 invasive and six native populations of D. suzukii. We found a large increase of the TE load in invasive populations correlated with a reduced Watterson estimate of genetic diversity θw^ a proxy of effective population size. We did not find any correlation between TE contents and bioclimatic variables, indicating a minor effect of environmentally induced TE activity. A genome-wide association study revealed that ca. 2,000 genomic regions are associated with TE abundance. We did not find, however, any evidence in such regions of an enrichment for genes known to interact with TE activity (e.g., transcription factor encoding genes or genes of the piRNA pathway). Finally, the study of TE insertion frequencies revealed 15 putatively adaptive TE insertions, six of them being likely associated with the recent invasion history of the species.
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https://hal-cnrs.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03417234
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Submitted on : Friday, November 5, 2021 - 3:58:45 PM
Last modification on : Monday, December 6, 2021 - 3:47:45 PM

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Vincent Mérel, P. Gibert, Inessa Buch, Valentina Rodriguez Rada, Arnaud Estoup, et al.. The Worldwide Invasion of Drosophila suzukii Is Accompanied by a Large Increase of Transposable Element Load and a Small Number of Putatively Adaptive Insertions. Molecular Biology and Evolution, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021, 38 (10), pp.4252-4267. ⟨10.1093/molbev/msab155⟩. ⟨hal-03417234⟩

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