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Reactive astrocyte nomenclature, definitions, and future directions

Carole Escartin 1 Elena Galea 2, 3 András Lakatos 4 James O’callaghan 5 Gabor Petzold 6, 7 Alberto Serrano-Pozo 8, 7 Christian Steinhäuser 9 Andrea Volterra 10 Giorgio Carmignoto 11, 12 Amit Agarwal 13 Nicola Allen 14 Alfonso Araque 15 Luis Barbeito 16 Ari Barzilai 17 Dwight Bergles 18 Gilles Bonvento 1 Arthur Butt 19 Wei-Ting Chen 20 Martine Cohen-Salmon 21 Colm Cunningham 22 Benjamin Deneen 23 Bart de Strooper 20, 24 Blanca Díaz-Castro 25 Cinthia Farina 26 Marc Freeman 27 Vittorio Gallo 28 James Goldman 29 Steven Goldman 30, 31 Magdalena Götz 32, 33 Antonia Gutiérrez 34, 35 Philip Haydon 36 Dieter Heiland 37 Elly Hol 38 Matthew Holt 20 Masamitsu Iino 39 Ksenia Kastanenka Helmut Kettenmann 40 Baljit Khakh 41 Schuichi Koizumi 42 C. Justin Lee 43 Shane Liddelow 44 Brian Macvicar 45 Pierre Magistretti 46, 10 Albee Messing 47 Anusha Mishra 48 Anna Molofsky 49 Keith Murai 50 Christopher Norris 51 Seiji Okada 52 Stéphane Oliet 53 João Oliveira 54, 55, 56 Aude Panatier 53 Vladimir Parpura 57 Marcela Pekna 58 Milos Pekny 58 Luc Pellerin 59 Gertrudis Perea 60 Beatriz Pérez-Nievas 61 Frank Pfrieger 62 Kira Poskanzer 49 Francisco Quintana 63 Richard Ransohoff 64 Miriam Riquelme-Perez 1 Stefanie Robel Christine Rose 65 Jeffrey Rothstein 18 Nathalie Rouach 21 David Rowitch Alexey Semyanov 66, 67 Swetlana Sirko 68, 69 Harald Sontheimer Raymond Swanson 49 Javier Vitorica 35, 70 Ina-Beate Wanner 41 Levi Wood 71 Jiaqian Wu 72 Binhai Zheng 73 Eduardo Zimmer 74 Robert Zorec 75 Michael Sofroniew 76 Alexei Verkhratsky 77, 78 
Abstract : Reactive astrocytes are astrocytes undergoing morphological, molecular, and functional remodeling in response to injury, disease, or infection of the CNS. Although this remodeling was first described over a century ago, uncertainties and controversies remain regarding the contribution of reactive astrocytes to CNS diseases, repair, and aging. It is also unclear whether fixed categories of reactive astrocytes exist and, if so, how to identify them. We point out the shortcomings of binary divisions of reactive astrocytes into good-vs-bad, neurotoxic-vs-neuroprotective or A1-vs-A2. We advocate, instead, that research on reactive astrocytes include assessment of multiple molecular and functional parameters-preferably in vivo-plus multivariate statistics and determination of impact on pathological hallmarks in relevant models. These guidelines may spur the discovery of astrocyte-based biomarkers as well as astrocyte-targeting therapies that abrogate detrimental actions of reactive astrocytes, potentiate their neuro- and glioprotective actions, and restore or augment their homeostatic, modulatory, and defensive functions.
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https://hal-cnrs.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03372664
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Submitted on : Monday, October 11, 2021 - 8:45:35 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, September 1, 2022 - 8:44:06 AM

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Carole Escartin, Elena Galea, András Lakatos, James O’callaghan, Gabor Petzold, et al.. Reactive astrocyte nomenclature, definitions, and future directions. Nature Neuroscience, Nature Publishing Group, 2021, 24 (3), pp.312-325. ⟨10.1038/s41593-020-00783-4⟩. ⟨hal-03372664⟩

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