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The Structure and the Regulation of Glycogen Phosphorylases in Brain

Abstract : Glycogen constitutes the main store of glucose in animal cells. Being present at much lower concentrations in the brain than in liver and muscles, brain glycogen has long been considered as an emergency source of glucose, mobilized under stress conditions (including hypoglyceamia). Nevertheless, over the past decade, multiple studies have shed a new light on the roles of brain glycogen, being notably an energy supply critical for high-cognitive processes such as learning and memory consolidation. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is the key enzyme regulating the mobilization of glycogen in cells. It is found in humans as three isozymes: muscle (mGP), liver (lGP) and brain GP (bGP). In the brain, astrocytes express both mGP and bGP while neurons only express the brain isoform. Although GP isozymes are very similar, their distinct regulatory features confer them distinct metabolic functions that are strongly related to the roles of glycogen in different tissues. Here, we provide an overview of the functions, the regulations and the structures of GPs in the brain and their relation to the specific roles of glycogen in astrocytes and neurons. We also discuss novel findings concerning the specific regulations of bGP by oxidative stress, and the potential of these enzymes as therapeutic targets in the brain.
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https://hal-cnrs.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03201620
Contributor : Colette Orange <>
Submitted on : Monday, April 19, 2021 - 9:48:08 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, April 21, 2021 - 3:23:36 AM

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Cecile Mathieu, Jean-Marie Dupret, Fernando Rodrigues-Lima. The Structure and the Regulation of Glycogen Phosphorylases in Brain. Advances in neurobiology, Springer, 2019, ⟨10.1007/978-3-030-27480-1_4⟩. ⟨hal-03201620⟩

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