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Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 Is Inhibited by the Dithiocarbamate Pesticide Thiram

Abstract : Thiram (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) is a representative dithiocarbamate (DTC) pesticide used in both the field and as a seed protectant. The widespread use of Thiram and other DTC pesticides has raised concerns for health, because these compounds can exert neuropathic, endocrine disruptive, and carcinogenic effects. These toxic effects are thought to rely, at least in part, on the reaction of Thiram (and certain of its metabolites) with cellular protein thiols with subsequent loss of protein function. So far, a limited number of molecular targets of Thiram have been reported, including few enzymes such as dopamine beta-hydroxylase, 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and brain glycogen phosphorylase. We provide evidence that Thiram is an inhibitor (K-I = 23 mu M; k(inact) = 0.085 second(-1); k(inact)/K-I = 3691 M-1.s(-1)) of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1), a phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme that plays a key role in the biotransformation of aromatic amine xenobiotics. Thiram was found to act as an irreversible inhibitor through the modification of NAT1 catalytic cysteine residue as also reported for other enzymes targeted by this pesticide. We also showed using purified NAT1 and human keratinocytes that Thiram impaired the N-acetylation of 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), a major toxic metabolite of aromatic amine pesticides (such as Diuron or Propanil). As coexposure to different classes of pesticides is common, our data suggest that pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions between DTC pesticides such as Thiram and aromatic amine pesticides may occur through alteration of NAT1 enzymes functions.
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https://hal-cnrs.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03108270
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Submitted on : Wednesday, January 13, 2021 - 9:43:37 AM
Last modification on : Monday, January 18, 2021 - 12:07:06 PM

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Xm Xu, C Mathieu, J Berthelet, R Duval, Lc Bui, et al.. Human Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 Is Inhibited by the Dithiocarbamate Pesticide Thiram. Molecular Pharmacology, American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 2017, 92 (3), pp.358-365. ⟨10.1124/mol.117.108662⟩. ⟨hal-03108270⟩

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