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4C3 Human Monoclonal Antibody: A Proof of Concept for Non-pathogenic Proteinase 3 Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies in Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis

Abstract : Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a severe autoimmune vasculitis associated with the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) mainly targeting proteinase 3 (PR3), a neutrophilic serine proteinase.PR3-ANCA binding to membrane-bound PR3 on neutrophils induce their auto-immune activation responsible for vascular lesions. However, the correlation between PR3-ANCA level and disease activity remains inconsistent, suggesting the existence of non-pathogenic PR3-ANCA. In order to prove their existence, we immortalized B lymphocytes from blood samples of GPA patients in remission having persistent PR3-ANCA to isolate non-activating PR3-ANCA. We obtained for the first time a non-activating human IgG1κanti-PR3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) named 4C3. This new mAb binds soluble PR3 with a high affinity and membrane-bound PR3 on an epitope close to the PR3 hydrophobic patch and in the vicinity of the active site. 4C3 is able to bind FcγRIIA and FcγRIIIB and has a G2F glycosylation profile on asparagine 297. 4C3 did not induce activation of neutrophils and could inhibit human polyclonal PR3-ANCA-induced activation suggesting that 4C3 is non-pathogenic This characteristic relies on the recognized epitope on PR3 rather than to the Fc portion properties. The existence of non-pathogenic PR3-ANCA, which do not activate neutrophils, could explain the persistence of high PR3-ANCA levels in some GPA patients in remission and why PR3-ANCA would not predict relapse. Finally, these results offer promising perspectives particularly regarding the understanding of PR3-ANCA pathogenicity and the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in GPA
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https://hal-cnrs.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03039822
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Submitted on : Friday, December 4, 2020 - 9:19:44 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, April 14, 2021 - 12:13:06 PM
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Jérôme Granel, Roxane Lemoine, Eric Morello, Yann Gallais, Julie Mariot, et al.. 4C3 Human Monoclonal Antibody: A Proof of Concept for Non-pathogenic Proteinase 3 Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies in Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis. Frontiers in Immunology, Frontiers, 2020, 11, pp.1-17. ⟨10.3389/fimmu.2020.573040⟩. ⟨hal-03039822⟩

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