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Intake of omega-3 formulation EPA:DHA 6:1 by old rats for 2 weeks improved endothelium-dependent relaxations and normalized the expression level of ACE/AT1R/NADPH oxidase and the formation of ROS in the mesenteric artery

Abstract : Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been shown to protect the cardiovascular system, in part, by stimulating the endothelial formation of nitric oxide (NO). EPA:DHA 6:1 has been identified as a potent omega 3 PUFA formulation to induce endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). This study examined whether intake of EPA:DHA 6:1 (500 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks improves an established endothelial dysfunction in old rats (20 months old), and, if so, the underlying mechanism was subsequently determined. In the main mesenteric artery rings, an endothelial dysfunction characterized by a blunted NO component, an abolished endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization component, and increased endothelium-dependent contractile responses (EDCFs) are observed in old rats compared to young rats. Age-related endothelial dysfunction was associated with increased vascular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of eNOS, components of the local angiotensin system, senescence markers, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the downregulation of COX-1. The EPA:DHA 6:1 treatment improved the NO-mediated relaxation, reduced the EDCF-dependent contractile response and the vascular formation of ROS, and normalized the expression level of all target proteins in the old arterial wall. Thus, the present findings indicate that a 2-week intake of EPA:DHA 6:1 by old rats restored endotheliumdependent NO-mediated relaxations, most likely, by preventing the upregulation of the local angiotensin system and the subsequent formation of ROS.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 22, 2020 - 4:02:00 PM
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Muhammad Farooq, Sébastien Gaertner, Lamia Amoura, Zahid Niazi, Sin-Hee Park, et al.. Intake of omega-3 formulation EPA:DHA 6:1 by old rats for 2 weeks improved endothelium-dependent relaxations and normalized the expression level of ACE/AT1R/NADPH oxidase and the formation of ROS in the mesenteric artery. Biochemical Pharmacology, Elsevier, 2020, 173, pp.113749. ⟨10.1016/j.bcp.2019.113749⟩. ⟨hal-03033658⟩

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