D. D. Ackerly and W. K. Cornwell, A trait-based approach to community assembly: Partitioning of species trait values into withinand among-community components, Ecology Letters, vol.10, pp.135-145, 2007.

C. H. Albert, W. Thuiller, N. G. Yoccoz, A. Soudant, F. Boucher et al., Intraspecific functional variability: Extent, structure and sources of variation, Journal of Ecology, vol.98, pp.604-613, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02521368

T. R. Baker, O. L. Phillips, Y. Malhi, S. Almeida, L. Arroyo et al., Variation in wood density determines spatial patterns in Amazonian forest biomass, Global Change Biology, vol.10, pp.545-562, 2004.

A. D. Bjorkman, I. H. Myers-smith, S. C. Elmendorf, S. Normand, N. Rüger et al., Plant functional trait change across a warming tundra biome, Nature, vol.562, pp.57-62, 2018.

B. Blonder, C. Lamanna, C. Violle, and B. J. Enquist, The n-dimensional hypervolume, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.23, pp.595-609, 2014.

K. J. Bloomfield, L. A. Cernusak, D. Eamus, D. S. Ellsworth, I. Colin-prentice et al., A continental?scale assessment of variability in leaf traits: Within species, across sites and between seasons, Functional Ecology, vol.32, issue.6, pp.1492-1506, 2018.

R. Borchert, Responses of tropical trees to rainfall seasonality and its long-term changes, pp.241-253, 1998.

E. E. Butler, A. Datta, H. Flores-moreno, M. Chen, K. R. Wythers et al., Mapping local and global variability in plant trait distributions, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.114, issue.51, pp.E10937-E10946, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01852904

J. Canadell, R. Jackson, J. Ehleringer, H. A. Mooney, O. E. Sala et al., Maximum rooting depth of vegetation types at the global scale, Oecologia, vol.108, pp.583-595, 1996.

J. Chave, D. Coomes, S. Jansen, S. L. Lewis, N. G. Swenson et al., Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum, Ecology Letters, vol.12, issue.4, pp.351-366, 2009.

S. Chen, W. Wang, W. Xu, Y. Wang, H. Wan et al., Plant diversity enhances productivity and soil carbon storage, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, vol.115, pp.4027-4032, 2018.

S. Díaz, J. Kattge, J. H. Cornelissen, I. J. Wright, S. Lavorel et al., The global spectrum of plant form and function, Nature, vol.529, issue.7585, pp.167-171, 2015.

J. Elith, M. Kearney, and S. Phillips, The art of modelling range-shifting species, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, vol.1, issue.4, pp.330-342, 2010.

J. Firn, J. M. Mcgree, E. Harvey, H. Flores-moreno, M. Schütz et al., Leaf nutrients, not specific leaf area, are consistent indicators of elevated nutrient inputs, Nature Ecology & Evolution, vol.3, issue.3, pp.400-406, 2019.

J. Franklin, J. M. Serra-diaz, A. D. Syphard, and H. M. Regan, Global change and terrestrial plant community dynamics, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.113, issue.14, pp.3725-3734, 2016.

J. P. Grime, Benefits of plant diversity to ecosystems: immediate, filter and founder effects, Journal of Ecology, vol.86, issue.6, pp.902-910, 1998.

T. Hengl, J. Mendes-de-jesus, G. B. Heuvelink, M. Ruiperez-gonzalez, M. Kilibarda et al., SoilGrids250m: Global gridded soil information based on machine learning, PLOS ONE, vol.12, issue.2, p.e0169748, 2017.

D. N. Karger, O. Conrad, J. Böhner, T. Kawohl, H. Kreft et al., Climatologies at high resolution for the earth?s land surface areas, Scientific Data, vol.4, issue.1, 2017.

J. Kattge, G. Boenisch, S. Diaz, S. Lavorel, C. Prentice et al., The TRY Plant Trait Database - enhanced coverage and open access, 2020.

J. Kattge, S. Díaz, S. Lavorel, I. C. Prentice, P. Leadley et al., TRY - a global database of plant traits, Global Change Biology, vol.17, issue.9, pp.2905-2935, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00639535

P. A. Keddy, A Pragmatic Approach to Functional Ecology, Functional Ecology, vol.6, issue.6, p.621, 1992.

S. Kimball, J. R. Gremer, A. L. Angert, T. E. Huxman, and D. L. Venable, Fitness and physiology in a variable environment, Oecologia, vol.169, issue.2, pp.319-329, 2011.

M. Larjavaara and H. C. Muller-landau, PERSPECTIVE: Rethinking the value of high wood density, Functional Ecology, vol.24, issue.4, pp.701-705, 2010.

S. Lavorel and E. Garnier, Predicting changes in community composition and ecosystem functioning from plant traits: revisiting the Holy Grail, Functional Ecology, vol.16, issue.5, pp.545-556, 2002.

N. Madani, J. S. Kimball, A. P. Ballantyne, D. L. Affleck, P. M. Van-bodegom et al., Future global productivity will be affected by plant trait response to climate, Scientific Reports, vol.8, issue.1, 2018.

V. Maire, I. J. Wright, I. C. Prentice, N. H. Batjes, R. Bhaskar et al., Global effects of soil and climate on leaf photosynthetic traits and rates, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.24, pp.706-717, 2015.

M. Marmion, M. Parviainen, M. Luoto, R. K. Heikkinen, and W. Thuiller, Evaluation of consensus methods in predictive species distribution modelling, Diversity and Distributions, vol.15, pp.59-69, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00377981

A. T. Moles, Being John Harper: Using evolutionary ideas to improve understanding of global patterns in plant traits, Journal of Ecology, vol.106, pp.1-18, 2018.

A. T. Moles, D. I. Warton, L. Warman, N. G. Swenson, S. W. Laffan et al., Global patterns in plant height, Journal of Ecology, vol.97, issue.5, pp.923-932, 2009.

Á. Moreno-martínez, G. Camps-valls, J. Kattge, N. Robinson, M. Reichstein et al., A methodology to derive global maps of leaf traits using remote sensing and climate data, Remote Sensing of Environment, vol.218, pp.69-88, 2018.

J. C. Ordoñez, P. M. Van-bodegom, J. M. Witte, I. J. Wright, P. B. Reich et al., A global study of relationships between leaf traits, climate and soil measures of nutrient fertility, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.18, issue.2, pp.137-149, 2009.

R. G. Pearson and T. P. Dawson, Predicting the impact of climate change on the distribution of species: Are bioclimate envelope models useful?, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.12, pp.361-371, 2003.

N. Pérez-harguindeguy, S. Díaz, E. Garnier, S. Lavorel, H. Poorter et al., New handbook for standardised measurement of plant functional traits worldwide, Australian Journal of Botany, vol.61, issue.3, p.167, 2013.

M. P. Perring, M. Bernhardt-römermann, L. Baeten, G. Midolo, H. Blondeel et al., Global environmental change effects on plant community composition trajectories depend upon management legacies, Global Change Biology, vol.24, pp.1722-1740, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02352570

L. Poorter, C. V. Castilho, J. Schietti, R. S. Oliveira, and F. R. Costa, Can traits predict individual growth performance? A test in a hyperdiverse tropical forest, New Phytologist, vol.219, issue.1, pp.109-121, 2018.

L. Poorter, M. T. Van-der-sande, E. J. Arets, N. Ascarrunz, B. J. Enquist et al., Biodiversity and climate determine the functioning of Neotropical forests, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.26, issue.12, pp.1423-1434, 2017.

O. Purschke, B. C. Schmid, M. T. Sykes, P. Poschlod, S. G. Michalski et al., Contrasting changes in taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity during a long-term succession: insights into assembly processes, Journal of Ecology, vol.101, issue.4, pp.857-866, 2013.

P. B. Reich, The world-wide ?fast-slow? plant economics spectrum: a traits manifesto, Journal of Ecology, vol.102, issue.2, pp.275-301, 2014.

P. B. Reich and J. Oleksyn, Global patterns of plant leaf N and P in relation to temperature and latitude, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of Ameica, vol.101, pp.11001-11006, 2004.

P. B. Reich, J. Oleksyn, and M. G. Tjoelker, Needle Respiration and Nitrogen Concentration in Scots Pine Populations from a Broad Latitudinal Range: A Common Garden Test with Field-Grown Trees, Functional Ecology, vol.10, issue.6, p.768, 1996.

D. S. Ross and Q. Ketterings, Recommended methods for determining soil cation exchange capacity. Recommended Soil Testing Procedures for the Northeastern United States, vol.493, pp.62-69, 1995.

A. Siefert, C. Violle, L. Chalmandrier, C. H. Albert, A. Taudiere et al., A global meta-analysis of the relative extent of intraspecific trait variation in plant communities, Ecology Letters, vol.18, issue.12, pp.1406-1419, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01237101

I. ?ímová, C. Violle, J. Svenning, J. Kattge, K. Engemann et al., Spatial patterns and climate relationships of major plant traits in the New World differ between woody and herbaceous species, Journal of Biogeography, vol.45, pp.895-916, 2018.

J. Stoklosa, C. Daly, S. D. Foster, M. B. Ashcroft, and D. I. Warton, A climate of uncertainty: accounting for error in climate variables for species distribution models, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, vol.6, issue.4, pp.412-423, 2014.

N. G. Swenson and B. J. Enquist, Ecological and evolutionary determinants of a key plant functional trait: wood density and its community-wide variation across latitude and elevation, American Journal of Botany, vol.94, issue.3, pp.451-459, 2007.

N. G. Swenson and M. D. Weiser, Plant geography upon the basis of functional traits: an example from eastern North American trees, Ecology, vol.91, issue.8, pp.2234-2241, 2010.


W. Thuiller, L. Brotons, M. B. Araújo, and S. Lavorel, Effects of restricting environmental range of data to project current and future species distributions, Ecography, vol.27, issue.2, pp.165-172, 2004.

W. Thuiller, M. Guéguen, J. Renaud, D. N. Karger, and N. E. Zimmermann, Uncertainty in ensembles of global biodiversity scenarios, Nature Communications, vol.10, issue.1, pp.1-9, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02324644

W. Thuiller, B. Lafourcade, R. Engler, and M. B. Araújo, BIOMOD - a platform for ensemble forecasting of species distributions, Ecography, vol.32, issue.3, pp.369-373, 2009.

W. Thuiller, B. Lafourcade, R. Engler, and M. B. Araújo, BIOMOD - a platform for ensemble forecasting of species distributions, Ecography, vol.32, issue.3, pp.369-373, 2009.

M. T. Tyree and J. S. Sperry, Vulnerability of xylem to cavitation and embolism, Annual Review of Plant Biology, vol.40, issue.1, pp.19-36, 1989.

P. M. Van-bodegom, J. C. Douma, and L. M. Verheijen, A fully traits-based approach to modeling global vegetation distribution, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.111, issue.38, pp.13733-13738, 2014.

P. M. Vitousek and R. L. Sanford, Nutrient cycling in moist tropical forest, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol.17, pp.137-167, 1986.

C. T. Webb, J. A. Hoeting, G. M. Ames, M. I. Pyne, and N. Leroy-poff, A structured and dynamic framework to advance traitsbased theory and prediction in ecology, Ecology Letters, vol.13, pp.267-283, 2010.

F. W. Went, The effect of temperature on plant growth, Annual Review of Plant Physiology, vol.4, pp.347-362, 1953.

I. J. Wright, P. B. Reich, J. H. Cornelissen, D. S. Falster, P. K. Groom et al., Modulation of leaf economic traits and trait relationships by climate, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.14, pp.411-421, 2005.

I. J. Wright, P. B. Reich, M. Westoby, D. D. Ackerly, Z. Baruch et al., The worldwide leaf economics spectrum, Nature, vol.428, issue.6985, pp.821-827, 2004.

Y. Yang, Q. Zhu, C. Peng, H. Wang, W. Xue et al., A novel approach for modelling vegetation distributions and analysing vegetation sensitivity through trait-climate relationships in China, Scientific Reports, vol.6, issue.1, p.24110, 2016.

R. J. Zomer, A. Trabucco, D. A. Bossio, and L. V. Verchot, Climate change mitigation: A spatial analysis of global land suitability for clean development mechanism afforestation and reforestation, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.126, issue.1-2, pp.67-80, 2008.

C. C. Boonman, A. Benítez?lópez, A. M. Schipper, W. Thuiller, M. Anand et al., Assessing the reliability of predicted plant trait distributions at the global scale, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.29, issue.6, pp.1034-1051, 2020.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02960113

A. Ppen-d-i-x-data and . Sources,


P. B. Adler, D. G. Milchunas, W. K. Lauenroth, O. E. Sala, and I. C. Burke, Functional traits of graminoids in semi-arid steppes: a test of grazing histories, Journal of Applied Ecology, vol.41, issue.4, pp.653-663, 2004.

J. A. Baddeley, S. J. Woodin, and I. J. Alexander, Effects of Increased Nitrogen and Phosphorus Availability on the Photosynthesis and Nutrient Relations of Three Arctic Dwarf Shrubs from Svalbard, Functional Ecology, vol.8, issue.6, p.676, 1994.

C. Baraloto, C. E. Timothy-paine, L. Poorter, J. Beauchene, D. Bonal et al., Decoupled leaf and stem economics in rain forest trees, Ecology Letters, vol.13, issue.11, pp.1338-1347, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00594040

R. T. Barrett, R. D. Hollister, S. F. Oberbauer, and C. E. Tweedie, Arctic plant responses to changing abiotic factors in northern Alaska, American Journal of Botany, vol.102, issue.12, pp.2020-2031, 2015.

Z. Baruch and G. Goldstein, Leaf construction cost, nutrient concentration, and net CO 2 assimilation of native and invasive species in Hawaii, Oecologia, vol.121, issue.2, pp.183-192, 1999.

S. L. Bassow and F. A. Bazzaz, Intra- and inter-specific variation in canopy photosynthesis in a mixed deciduous forest, Oecologia, vol.109, issue.4, pp.507-515, 1997.

, Oecologia, vol.109, pp.507-515

L. T. Berner, H. D. Alexander, M. M. Loranty, P. Ganzlin, M. C. Mack et al., Biomass allometry for alder, dwarf birch, and willow in boreal forest and tundra ecosystems of far northeastern Siberia and north-central Alaska, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.337, pp.110-118, 2015.

A. D. Bjorkman, S. C. Elmendorf, A. L. Beamish, M. Vellend, and G. H. Henry, Contrasting effects of warming and increased snowfall on Arctic tundra plant phenology over the past two decades, Global Change Biology, vol.21, issue.12, pp.4651-4661, 2015.

B. Blonder, V. Buzzard, I. Simova, L. Sloat, B. Boyle et al., Aboveground and belowground biomass and sapwood area allometric equations for six boreal tree species of northern Manitoba, Canadian Journal of Forest Research, vol.32, pp.1441-1450, 2002.

B. Bond-lamberty, C. Wang, S. T. Gower, and J. Norman, Leaf area dynamics of a boreal black spruce fire chronosequence, Tree Physiology, vol.22, issue.14, pp.993-1001, 2002.

F. Bongers and J. Popma, Leaf Characteristics of the Tropical Rain Forest Flora of Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, Botanical Gazette, vol.151, issue.3, pp.354-365, 1990.

K. A. Brown, S. E. Johnson, K. E. Parks, S. M. Holmes, T. Ivoandry et al., Use of provisioning ecosystem services drives loss of functional traits across land use intensification gradients in tropical forests in Madagascar, Biological Conservation, vol.161, pp.118-127, 2013.

B. J. Butterfield and J. M. Briggs, Regeneration niche differentiates functional strategies of desert woody plant species, Oecologia, vol.165, issue.2, pp.477-487, 2010.

B. J. Butterfield and J. M. Briggs, Regeneration niche differentiates functional strategies of desert woody plant species, Oecologia, vol.165, issue.2, pp.477-487, 2010.

G. Campetella, Z. Botta-dukát, C. Wellstein, R. Canullo, S. Gatto et al., Patterns of plant trait?environment relationships along a forest succession chronosequence, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.145, issue.1, pp.38-48, 2011.

, Editorial Board, Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol.145, issue.1, p.CO2, 2011.

M. Carbognani, A. Petraglia, and M. Tomaselli, Warming effects and plant trait control on the early-decomposition in alpine snowbeds, Plant and Soil, vol.376, issue.1-2, pp.277-290, 2013.

B. E. Cerabolini, G. Brusa, R. M. Ceriani, R. De-andreis, A. Luzzaro et al., Can CSR classification be generally applied outside Britain?, Plant Ecology, vol.210, issue.2, pp.253-261, 2010.

F. S. Chapin and G. R. Shaver, Individualistic Growth Response of Tundra Plant Species to Environmental Manipulations in the Field, Ecology, vol.66, issue.2, pp.564-576, 1985.

F. S. Chapin, G. R. Shaver, A. E. Giblin, K. J. Nadelhoffer, and J. A. Laundre, Responses of Arctic Tundra to Experimental and Observed Changes in Climate, Ecology, vol.76, issue.3, pp.694-711, 1995.

Y. Chen, W. Han, L. Tang, Z. Tang, and J. Fang, Leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of woody plants differ in responses to climate, soil and plant growth form, Ecography, vol.36, issue.2, pp.178-184, 2011.

J. H. Cornelissen, B. Cerabolini, P. Castro?díez, P. Villar?salvador, G. Montserrat?martí et al., Functional traits of woody plants: correspondence of species rankings between field adults and laboratory?grown seedlings?, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.14, issue.3, pp.311-322, 2003.

J. H. Cornelissen, P. C. Diez, and R. Hunt, Seedling Growth, Allocation and Leaf Attributes in a Wide Range of Woody Plant Species and Types, The Journal of Ecology, vol.84, issue.5, p.755, 1996.

J. H. Cornelissen, H. M. Quested, D. Gwynn-jones, R. S. Van-logtestijn, M. A. De-beus et al., Leaf digestibility and litter decomposability are related in a wide range of subarctic plant species and types, Functional Ecology, vol.18, issue.6, pp.779-786, 2004.

W. K. Cornwell and D. D. Ackerly, Community assembly and shifts in plant trait distributions across an environmental gradient in coastal California, Ecological Monographs, vol.79, issue.1, pp.109-126, 2009.

J. M. Craine and E. G. Towne, High leaf tissue density grassland species consistently more abundant across topographic and disturbance contrasts in a North American tallgrass prairie, Plant and Soil, vol.337, issue.1-2, pp.193-203, 2010.

J. M. Craine, E. G. Towne, T. W. Ocheltree, and J. B. Nippert, Community traitscape of foliar nitrogen isotopes reveals N availability patterns in a tallgrass prairie, Plant and Soil, vol.356, issue.1-2, pp.395-403, 2012.

J. M. Craine, E. G. Towne, T. W. Ocheltree, and J. B. Nippert, Community traitscape of foliar nitrogen isotopes reveals N availability patterns in a tallgrass prairie, Plant and Soil, vol.356, issue.1-2, pp.395-403, 2012.

D. Craven, D. Braden, M. S. Ashton, G. P. Berlyn, M. Wishnie et al., Between and within-site comparisons of structural and physiological characteristics and foliar nutrient content of 14 tree species at a wet, fertile site and a dry, infertile site in Panama, Forest Ecology and Management, vol.238, issue.1-3, pp.335-346, 2007.

A. C. De-araujo, J. P. Ometto, A. J. Dolman, B. Kruijt, M. J. Waterloo et al., LBA-ECO CD-02 C and N isotopes in leaves and atmospheric CO2, Amazonas, Brazil, Data set., Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active A, 2012.

V. Devictor, D. Mouillot, C. Meynard, F. Jiguet, W. Thuiller et al., Spatial mismatch and congruence between taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity: the need for integrative conservation strategies in a changing world, Ecology Letters, vol.13, pp.no-no, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01604319

M. Diemer, Leaf Lifespans of High-Elevation, Aseasonal Andean Shrub Species in Relation to Leaf Traits and Leaf Habit, Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, vol.7, issue.6, p.457, 1998.

P. Smith, M. J. Parnwell, and R. L. Bryant, Environment and Development: An Inherent Contradiction?, Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, vol.6, issue.6, p.465, 1997.

M. Diemer, Life span and dynamics of leaves of herbaceous perennials in high-elevation environments: ?news from the elephant?s leg?, Functional Ecology, vol.12, issue.3, pp.413-425, 1998.

M. Diemer, C. H. K?rner, and S. Prock, Leaf life spans in wild perennial herbaceous plants: a survey and attempts at a functional interpretation, Oecologia, vol.89, issue.1, pp.10-16, 1992.

D. S. Ellsworth and P. B. Reich, Canopy structure and vertical patterns of photosynthesis and related leaf traits in a deciduous forest, Oecologia, vol.96, issue.2, pp.169-178, 1993.

A. Eskelinen, E. Kaarlejärvi, and J. Olofsson, Herbivory and nutrient limitation protect warming tundra from lowland species? invasion and diversity loss, Global Change Biology, vol.23, issue.1, pp.245-255, 2016.

A. M. Figueira, S. D. Miller, C. A. De-sousa, M. C. Menton, A. R. Maia et al., Effects of selective logging on tropical forest tree growth, Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, vol.113, issue.G1, pp.n/a-n/a, 2008.

C. Frenette-dussault, B. Shipley, J. F. Léger, D. Meziane, and Y. Hingrat, Functional structure of an arid steppe plant community reveals similarities with Grime's C-S-R theory, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.23, issue.2, pp.208-222, 2011.

G. T. Freschet, J. H. Cornelissen, R. S. Van-logtestijn, and R. Aerts, Evidence of the ?plant economics spectrum? in a subarctic flora, Journal of Ecology, vol.98, issue.2, pp.362-373, 2010.

N. M. Fyllas, S. Patino, T. R. Baker, G. Bielefeld-nardoto, L. A. Martinelli et al., Basin-wide variations in foliar properties of Amazonian forest: Phylogeny, soils and climate, Biogeosciences, vol.6, pp.2677-2708, 2009.

E. Garnier, G. Laurent, A. Bellmann, S. Debain, P. Berthelier et al., Consistency of species ranking based on functional leaf traits, New Phytologist, vol.152, issue.1, pp.69-83, 2001.

E. Garnier, S. Lavorel, P. Ansquer, H. Castro, P. Cruz et al., Assessing the Effects of Land-use Change on Plant Traits, Communities and Ecosystem Functioning in Grasslands: A Standardized Methodology and Lessons from an Application to 11 European Sites, Annals of Botany, vol.99, issue.5, pp.967-985, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00283760

S. M. Gleason, D. W. Butler, K. Ziemi?ska, P. Waryszak, and M. Westoby, Stem xylem conductivity is key to plant water balance across Australian angiosperm species, Functional Ecology, vol.26, issue.2, pp.343-352, 2012.

M. K. Good, J. W. Morgan, S. Venn, and P. Green, Timing of snowmelt affects species composition via plant strategy filtering, Basic and Applied Ecology, vol.35, pp.54-62, 2019.

O. Grau, J. M. Ninot, A. Pérez-haase, and T. V. Callaghan, Plant co-existence patterns and High-Arctic vegetation composition in three common plant communities in north-east Greenland, Polar Research, vol.33, issue.1, p.19235, 2014.

A. G. Gutiérrez, J. J. Armesto, and J. C. Aravena, Disturbance and regeneration dynamics of an old-growth North Patagonian rain forest in Chiloé Island, Chile. Journal of Ecology, vol.92, pp.598-608, 2004.

A. G. Gutiérrez and A. Huth, Successional stages of primary temperate rainforests of Chiloé Island, Chile, Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, vol.14, issue.4, pp.243-256, 2012.

A. L. Guy, J. M. Mischkolz, and E. G. Lamb, Limited effects of simulated acidic deposition on seedling survivorship and root morphology of endemic plant taxa of the Athabasca Sand Dunes in well-watered greenhouse trials, Botany, vol.91, issue.3, pp.176-181, 2013.

Q. Han, T. Kawasaki, T. Nakano, and Y. Chiba, Spatial and seasonal variability of temperature responses of biochemical photosynthesis parameters and leaf nitrogen content within a Pinus densiflora crown, Tree Physiology, vol.24, issue.7, pp.737-744, 2004.

W. Han, Y. Chen, F. J. Zhao, L. Tang, R. Jiang et al., , 2012.

W. Han, Y. Chen, F. Zhao, L. Tang, R. Jiang et al., Floral, climatic and soil pH controls on leaf ash content in China's terrestrial plants, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.21, issue.3, pp.376-382, 2011.

K. A. Harper, A. A. Lavallee, and P. Dodonov, Patterns of shrub abundance and relationships with other plant types within the forest?tundra ecotone in northern Canada, Arctic Science, vol.4, issue.4, pp.691-709, 2018.

K. Hikosaka and T. Hirose, Photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency in evergreen broad-leaved woody species coexisting in a warm-temperate forest, Tree Physiology, vol.20, issue.18, pp.1249-1254, 2000.

K. Hikosaka, D. Nagamatsu, H. S. Ishii, and T. Hirose, Photosynthesis-nitrogen relationships in species at different altitudes on Mount Kinabalu, Malaysia, Ecological Research, vol.17, issue.3, pp.305-313, 2002.

K. Hikosaka, D. Nagamatsu, H. S. Ishii, and T. Hirose, Photosynthesis-nitrogen relationships in species at different altitudes on Mount Kinabalu, Malaysia, Ecological Research, vol.17, issue.3, pp.305-313, 2002.

J. M. Hudson, G. H. Henry, and W. K. Cornwell, Taller and larger: shifts in Arctic tundra leaf traits after 16 years of experimental warming, Global Change Biology, vol.17, issue.2, pp.1013-1021, 2011.

M. Iturrate-garcia, M. J. O'brien, O. Khitun, S. Abiven, P. A. Niklaus et al., Interactive effects between plant functional types and soil factors on tundra species diversity and community composition, Ecology and Evolution, vol.6, issue.22, pp.8126-8137, 2016.


T. W. Jurik, J. A. Weber, and D. M. Gates, Effects of Temperature and Light on Photosynthesis of Dominant Species of a Northern Hardwood Forest, Botanical Gazette, vol.149, issue.2, pp.203-208, 1988.

E. Kaarlejärvi, R. Baxter, A. Hofgaard, H. Hytteborn, O. Khitun et al., Effects of Warming on Shrub Abundance and Chemistry Drive Ecosystem-Level Changes in a Forest?Tundra Ecotone, Ecosystems, vol.15, issue.8, pp.1219-1233, 2012.

E. Kaarlejärvi, A. Eskelinen, and J. Olofsson, Author Correction: Herbivores rescue diversity in warming tundra by modulating trait-dependent species losses and gains, Nature Communications, vol.8, issue.1, p.419, 2017.

J. Kattge, W. Knorr, T. Raddatz, and C. Wirth, Quantifying photosynthetic capacity and its relationship to leaf nitrogen content for global-scale terrestrial biosphere models, Global Change Biology, vol.15, issue.4, pp.976-991, 2009.

E. Kazakou, D. Vile, B. Shipley, C. Gallet, and E. Garnier, Co-variations in litter decomposition, leaf traits and plant growth in species from a Mediterranean old-field succession, Functional Ecology, vol.20, issue.1, pp.21-30, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halsde-00293858

E. Kichenin, D. A. Wardle, D. A. Peltzer, C. W. Morse, and G. T. Freschet, Contrasting effects of plant inter- and intraspecific variation on community-level trait measures along an environmental gradient, Functional Ecology, vol.27, issue.5, pp.1254-1261, 2013.

R. A. Klady, G. H. Henry, and V. Lemay, Changes in high arctic tundra plant reproduction in response to long-term experimental warming, Global Change Biology, vol.17, issue.4, pp.1611-1624, 2010.

N. J. Kraft, R. Valencia, and D. D. Ackerly, Functional Traits and Niche-Based Tree Community Assembly in an Amazonian Forest, Science, vol.322, issue.5901, pp.580-582, 2008.

G. Kudo, Intraspecific variation of leaf traits in several deciduous species in relation to length of growing season, Écoscience, vol.3, issue.4, pp.483-489, 1996.

G. Kudo, U. Molau, and N. Wada, Leaf-trait Variation of Tundra Plants along a Climatic Gradient: An Integration of Responses in Evergreen and Deciduous Species, Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, vol.33, issue.2, pp.181-190, 2001.

H. Kurokawa and T. Nakashizuka, LEAF HERBIVORY AND DECOMPOSABILITY IN A MALAYSIAN TROPICAL RAIN FOREST, Ecology, vol.89, issue.9, pp.2645-2656, 2008.

D. C. Laughlin, P. Z. Fulé, D. W. Huffman, J. Crouse, and E. Laliberté, Climatic constraints on trait-based forest assembly, Journal of Ecology, vol.99, issue.6, pp.1489-1499, 2011.

D. C. Laughlin, J. J. Leppert, M. M. Moore, and C. H. Sieg, A multi-trait test of the leaf-height-seed plant strategy scheme with 133 species from a pine forest flora, Functional Ecology, vol.24, issue.3, pp.493-501, 2009.

D. C. Laughlin, J. J. Leppert, M. M. Moore, and C. H. Sieg, A multi-trait test of the leaf-height-seed plant strategy scheme with 133 species from a pine forest flora, Functional Ecology, vol.24, issue.3, pp.493-501, 2009.

C. J. Little, H. Cutting, J. Alatalo, and E. J. Cooper, Short-term herbivory has long-term consequences in warmed and ambient high Arctic tundra, Environmental Research Letters, vol.12, issue.2, p.025001, 2017.

C. A. Mcallister, A. K. Knapp, and L. A. Maragni, Is leaf-level photosynthesis related to plant success in a highly productive grassland?, Oecologia, vol.117, issue.1-2, pp.40-46, 1998.

B. E. Medlyn, F. Badeck, D. G. De-pury, C. V. Barton, M. Broadmeadow et al., Effects of elevated [CO2] on photosynthesis in European forest species: a meta-analysis of model parameters, Plant, Cell & Environment, vol.22, issue.12, pp.1475-1495, 1999.

P. Meir, P. E. Levy, J. Grace, and P. G. Jarvis, Photosynthetic parameters from two contrasting woody vegetation types in West Africa, Plant Ecology, vol.192, issue.2, pp.277-287, 2007.

J. Messier, B. J. Mcgill, and M. J. Lechowicz, How do traits vary across ecological scales? A case for trait-based ecology, Ecology Letters, vol.13, issue.7, pp.838-848, 2010.

J. J. Midgley, G. R. Wyk, and D. A. Everard, Leaf attributes of South African forest species, African Journal of Ecology, vol.33, issue.2, pp.160-168, 1995.

R. Milla and P. B. Reich, Multi-trait interactions, not phylogeny, fine-tune leaf size reduction with increasing altitude, Annals of Botany, vol.107, issue.3, pp.455-465, 2011.

F. Missio, P. Higuchi, A. Silva, S. J. Longhi, B. Salami et al., Trade-offs and spatial variation of functional traits of tree species in a subtropical forest in southern Brazil, iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, vol.9, issue.6, pp.855-859, 2016.

K. A. Mitchell, P. V. Bolstad, and J. M. Vose, Interspecific and environmentally induced variation in foliar dark respiration among eighteen southeastern deciduous tree species, Tree Physiology, vol.19, issue.13, pp.861-870, 1999.

H. A. Mooney, C. Field, S. L. Gulmon, and F. A. Bazzaz, Photosynthetic capacity in relation to leaf position in desert versus old-field annuals, Oecologia, vol.50, issue.1, pp.109-112, 1981.

H. A. Mooney, C. Field, S. L. Gulmon, and F. A. Bazzaz, Photosynthetic capacity in relation to leaf position in desert versus old-field annuals, Oecologia, vol.50, issue.1, pp.109-112, 1981.

D. Morales, M. S. Jiménez, A. M. González-rodríguez, and J. Cermák, Laurel forests in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Trees, vol.11, issue.1, p.34, 1996.

M. A. Mörsdorf, N. S. Baggesen, N. G. Yoccoz, A. Michelsen, B. Elberling et al., Corrigendum to Mörsdorf et al. (2019) ?Deepened winter snow significantly influences the availability and forms of nitrogen taken up by plants in High Arctic tundra? [Soil Biology & Biochemistry 135 222?234], Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol.142, p.107654, 2020.

S. C. Müller, G. E. Overbeck, J. Pfadenhauer, and V. D. Pillar, Plant Functional Types of Woody Species Related to Fire Disturbance in Forest?Grassland Ecotones, Plant Ecology, vol.189, issue.1, pp.1-14, 2006.

A. L. Nauta, M. M. Heijmans, D. Blok, J. Limpens, B. Elberling et al., Permafrost collapse after shrub removal shifts tundra ecosystem to a methane source, Nature Climate Change, vol.5, issue.1, pp.67-70, 2014.

Ü. Niinemets, Research review. Components of leaf dry mass per area - thickness and density - alter leaf photosynthetic capacity in reverse directions in woody plants, New Phytologist, vol.144, issue.1, pp.35-47, 1999.

R. Ogaya and J. Peñuelas, Comparative field study of Quercus ilex and Phillyrea latifolia: photosynthetic response to experimental drought conditions, Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol.50, issue.2, pp.137-148, 2003.

J. C. Ordoñez, P. M. Van-bodegom, J. M. Witte, R. P. Bartholomeus, J. R. Van-hal et al., Plant Strategies in Relation to Resource Supply in Mesic to Wet Environments: Does Theory Mirror Nature?, The American Naturalist, vol.175, issue.2, pp.225-239, 2010.

G. E. Overbeck, S. C. Müller, V. D. Pillar, and J. Pfadenhauer, Fine?scale post?fire dynamics in southern Brazilian subtropical grassland, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.16, issue.6, pp.655-664, 2005.

G. E. Overbeck, S. C. Müller, V. D. Pillar, and J. Pfadenhauer, Fine?scale post?fire dynamics in southern Brazilian subtropical grassland, Journal of Vegetation Science, vol.16, issue.6, pp.655-664, 2005.

T. Parada-j, C. Jara-v, and C. H. Lusk, Distribución de alturas máximas de especies en rodales antiguos de selva Valdiviana, Parque Nacional Puyehue, Bosque (Valdivia), vol.24, issue.2, pp.63-67, 2003.

B. Peco, I. De-pablos, J. Traba, and C. Levassor, The effect of grazing abandonment on species composition and functional traits: the case of dehesa grasslands, Basic and Applied Ecology, vol.6, issue.2, pp.175-183, 2005.

J. Penuelas, J. Sardans, J. Llusià, S. M. Owen, J. Carnicer et al., Faster returns on ?leaf economics? and different biogeochemical niche in invasive compared with native plant species, Global Change Biology, vol.16, issue.8, pp.2171-2185, 2009.

C. M. Pickering and S. Venn, Increasing the resilience of Australian alpine flora to climate change and assosiated threats: A plant functional traits approach, 2013.

L. Poorter, Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests, New Phytologist, vol.181, issue.4, pp.890-900, 2008.

L. Poorter and F. Bongers, LEAF TRAITS ARE GOOD PREDICTORS OF PLANT PERFORMANCE ACROSS 53 RAIN FOREST SPECIES, Ecology, vol.87, issue.7, pp.1733-1743, 2006.

J. S. Powers and P. Tiffin, Plant functional type classifications in tropical dry forests in Costa Rica: leaf habit versus taxonomic approaches, Functional Ecology, vol.24, issue.4, pp.927-936, 2010.

I. C. Prentice, T. Meng, H. Wang, S. P. Harrison, J. Ni et al., Evidence of a universal scaling relationship for leaf CO2 drawdown along an aridity gradient, New Phytologist, vol.190, issue.1, pp.169-180, 2010.

C. A. Price and B. J. Enquist, SCALING MASS AND MORPHOLOGY IN LEAVES: AN EXTENSION OF THE WBE MODEL, Ecology, vol.88, issue.5, pp.1132-1141, 2007.

V. I. Pyankov, A. V. Kondratchuk, and B. Shipley, Leaf structure and specific leaf mass: the alpine desert plants of the Eastern Pamirs, Tadjikistan, New Phytologist, vol.143, issue.1, pp.131-142, 1999.

H. M. Quested, J. H. Cornelissen, M. C. Press, T. V. Callaghan, R. Aerts et al., DECOMPOSITION OF SUB-ARCTIC PLANTS WITH DIFFERING NITROGEN ECONOMIES: A FUNCTIONAL ROLE FOR HEMIPARASITES, Ecology, vol.84, issue.12, pp.3209-3221, 2003.

Q. D. Read, J. A. Henning, A. T. Classen, and N. J. Sanders, , 2018.

Q. D. Read, J. A. Henning, A. T. Classen, and N. J. Sanders, Aboveground resilience to species loss but belowground resistance to nitrogen addition in a montane plant community, Journal of Plant Ecology, vol.11, issue.3, pp.351-363, 2017.

P. B. Reich, D. S. Ellsworth, M. B. Walters, J. M. Vose, C. Gresham et al., GENERALITY OF LEAF TRAIT RELATIONSHIPS: A TEST ACROSS SIX BIOMES, Ecology, vol.80, issue.6, pp.1955-1969, 1999.

P. B. Reich, J. Oleksyn, and I. J. Wright, Leaf phosphorus influences the photosynthesis?nitrogen relation: a cross-biome analysis of 314 species, Oecologia, vol.160, issue.2, pp.207-212, 2009.

S. B. Rumpf, P. R. Semenchuk, S. Dullinger, and E. J. Cooper, Idiosyncratic Responses of High Arctic Plants to Changing Snow Regimes, PLoS ONE, vol.9, issue.2, p.e86281, 2014.

B. Sandel, J. D. Corbin, and M. Krupa, Using plant functional traits to guide restoration: A case study in California coastal grassland, Ecosphere, vol.2, issue.2, p.art23, 2011.

W. H. Schlesinger, E. H. Delucia, and W. D. Billings, Nutrient-Use Efficiency of Woody Plants on Contrasting Soils in the Western Great Basin, Nevada, Ecology, vol.70, issue.1, pp.105-113, 1989.

A. H. Simpson, S. J. Richardson, and D. C. Laughlin, Soil-climate interactions explain variation in foliar, stem, root and reproductive traits across temperate forests, Global Ecology and Biogeography, vol.25, issue.8, pp.964-978, 2016.

M. A. Sobrado, Cost-Benefit Relationships in Deciduous and Evergreen Leaves of Tropical Dry Forest Species, Functional Ecology, vol.5, issue.5, p.608, 1991.

N. A. Soudzilovskaia, T. G. Elumeeva, V. G. Onipchenko, I. I. Shidakov, F. S. Salpagarova et al., Functional traits predict relationship between plant abundance dynamic and long-term climate warming, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.110, issue.45, pp.18180-18184, 2013.

M. J. Spasojevic and K. N. Suding, Inferring community assembly mechanisms from functional diversity patterns: the importance of multiple assembly processes, Journal of Ecology, vol.100, issue.3, pp.652-661, 2012.

J. D. Speed, G. Austrheim, A. J. Hester, and A. Mysterud, Experimental evidence for herbivore limitation of the treeline, Ecology, vol.91, issue.11, pp.3414-3420, 2010.

L. E. Street, J. Subke, R. Baxter, K. J. Dinsmore, C. Knoblauch et al., Ecosystem carbon dynamics differ between tundra shrub types in the western Canadian Arctic, Environmental Research Letters, vol.13, pp.228-243, 2016.

M. T. Van-der-sande, E. J. Arets, M. Peña?claros, M. R. Hoosbeek, Y. Cáceres?siani et al., Soil fertility and species traits, but not diversity, drive productivity and biomass stocks in a Guyanese tropical rainforest, Functional Ecology, vol.32, issue.2, pp.461-474, 2017.

M. T. Van-der-sande, M. Peña-claros, N. Ascarrunz, E. J. Arets, J. C. Licona et al., Abiotic and biotic drivers of biomass change in a Neotropical forest, Journal of Ecology, vol.105, issue.5, pp.1223-1234, 2017.

R. Villar and J. Merino, Comparison of leaf construction costs in woody species with differing leaf life-spans in contrasting ecosystems, New Phytologist, vol.151, issue.1, pp.213-226, 2001.

B. Von-holle and D. Simberloff, Testing Fox's assembly rule: does plant invasion depend on recipient community structure?, Oikos, vol.105, issue.3, pp.551-563, 2004.

T. Vowles, B. Gunnarsson, U. Molau, T. Hickler, L. Klemedtsson et al., Expansion of deciduous tall shrubs but not evergreen dwarf shrubs inhibited by reindeer in Scandes mountain range, Journal of Ecology, vol.105, issue.6, pp.1547-1561, 2017.

D. Whitehead, A. S. Walcroft, N. A. Scott, J. A. Townsend, C. M. Trotter et al., Characteristics of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in the shrubland species manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) and kanuka (Kunzea ericoides) for the estimation of annual canopy carbon uptake, Tree Physiology, vol.24, issue.7, pp.795-804, 2004.

M. Williams, Y. E. Shimabokuro, and E. B. Rastetter, LBA-ECO CD-09 Soil and vegetation characteristics, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil, Data set, 2012.

G. Williams-linera, Phenology of Deciduous and Broadleaved-Evergreen Tree Species in a Mexican Tropical Lower Montane Forest, Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, vol.6, issue.2, p.115, 1997.

I. J. Wright, P. B. Reich, and M. Westoby, Strategy shifts in leaf physiology, structure and nutrient content between species of high- and low-rainfall and high- and low-nutrient habitats, Functional Ecology, vol.15, issue.4, pp.423-434, 2001.

I. J. Wright, P. B. Reich, M. Westoby, D. D. Ackerly, Z. Baruch et al., The worldwide leaf economics spectrum, Nature, vol.428, issue.6985, pp.821-827, 2004.

I. J. Wright, M. Westoby, and P. B. Reich, Convergence towards higher leaf mass per area in dry and nutrient?poor habitats has different consequences for leaf life span, Journal of Ecology, vol.90, issue.3, pp.534-543, 2002.

S. J. Wright, K. Kitajima, N. J. Kraft, P. B. Reich, I. J. Wright et al., Functional traits and the growth?mortality trade?off in tropical trees, Ecology, vol.91, issue.12, pp.3664-3674, 2010.