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Uncertainties in pentose-phosphate pathway flux assessment underestimate its contribution to neuronal glucose consumption: relevance for neurodegeneration and aging

Abstract : The pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP) promotes the oxidative decarboxylation of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) in two consecutive steps, catalyzed by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), yielding ribulose-5-phosphate (Ru5P) (Figure 1) (Wamelink et al., 2008). These steps constitute the so-called oxidative PPP branch, where the redox energy of G6P is conserved as NADPH(H +). Together with other NADPH(H +) regenerating systems, such as NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme (ME), the oxidative PPP branch represents the most important source of reducing equivalents for (i) antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases, and (ii) fatty acid synthase (Dringen et al., 2007). Ru5P is isomerized into ribose-5-phosphate (R5P), which serves either as the precursor for nucleotide biosynthesis, or it continues metabolism through the non-oxidative PPP branch. In the latter, R5P epimerize into xylulose-5-phosphate (Xu5P), with which it transketolases producing sedoheptulose-7-phosphate (S7P) plus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). In turn, S7P and G3P transaldolase to form fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) and erythrose-4-phosphate (E4P). E4P is then transketolated with Xu5P forming F6P and G3P. Thus, through the PPP, three moles of G6P yield three CO 2 , two F6P, and one G3P. Since PPP-derived F6P and G3P are glycolytic intermediates too, they can follow conversion into pyruvate. Thus, glycolysis and PPP are two different pathways that share common pools of F6P and G3P intermediates. Accordingly, G6P converted into pyruvate through the PPP conserves both the redox and the energetic values of glucose, highlighting a yet unrecognized high impact of PPP flux activity in redox/energy conservation. Abbreviations: E4P
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Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore, Juan Bolaños. Uncertainties in pentose-phosphate pathway flux assessment underestimate its contribution to neuronal glucose consumption: relevance for neurodegeneration and aging. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, Frontiers, 2015, 1, ⟨10.3389/fnagi.2015.00089⟩. ⟨hal-02486762⟩

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