, In addition to the Soghun Valley, the Daulatabad Plain, located 25 km west of Tepe Yahya, was also investigated by C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky and his team, 1986.

, Daulatabad Plain, along the Persian Gulf coast (mostly the region of Minab, Hormozgan), in the Halil Rud Valley, and in the area situated between the Persian Gulf and the Halil Rud Valley (Rudan), the early 1930s southern Kerman

M. A. Sir and . Stein, while the Halil Rud Valley was surveyed by, 1937.

. Cortesi, Important discoveries were made in the Halil Rud Valley at two sites, Konar Sandal A and B (Madjidzadeh 2008) and at Mahtoutabad, pp.8-9, 2008.

D. Vidale and . Miroschedji, Iranian Balochistan was later investigated by B. De Cardi (De Cardi 1970) and M. Tosi (Tosi 1970) in the Bampur Valley area, and by J. Miragliuolo in the Kash area, The northern half of the Kerman province is known from excavations and surveys conducted in the Shahdad area, around 250 km northeast of Tepe Yahya, 1936.

. Shahr-i-sokhta, 500 km to the northeast; and Shahi-Tump and Miri Qalat (Pakistan), ca. 650 km to the southeast. Survey data consisting mostly of ceramic sherds generally allow for dating and approach of settle

, At the same site mention is also made of a bowl with swastika motif (De Cardi 1970:tab. 4). The site named Maula might be the same as Gwargusht (see Prickett 1986a:1328), ? Material of Bampur Period IV was reported from Dambian

A. , Stein from Maula includes Bampur-related, Konar Sandal-related, and Yahya IVB-related ceramics (Stein 1937:pl. IX: Mau sherds). Among them is incised grey ware that is similar to material from

T. Bampur and . Kech-makran, Period IIIc ceramics, 1937.

?. B. , The material from Khurab includes parallels to Konar Sandal, Yahya Period IVB, and Kech-Makran (from Period IIIb) assemblages, pp.263-264, 1970.

X. Xii, X. , and X. Schmandt-besserat, This site seems to be occupied from the third millennium BC. The vessels illustrated in Stein, 1937.

L. Ii, As discussed before, the swastika motif from Khurab is not the same as those observed at Shahr-i Sokhta Period I and Kech-Makran Late Period IIIa; the latter are made with hatched branches, while the former is made with lines. Swastika motifs made with lines are attested from Period IIIb in Kech-Makran, while those with branches are at Shahr-i Sokhta in Period I and are associated with Late Period IIIa in Kech-Makran. The goblet and the hatched triangle observed on a sherd resemble examples from Tepe Yahya IVC2-IVB6, Shahr-i Sokhta Period I and Kech-Makran in Late Period IIIa/Period IIIb, 295 have clear equivalents in Kech-Makran (from Period IIIb). Some interesting, albeit rarer, comparisons may be made between ceramics from Khurab identified in the Stein collection of the PMAE and grey, painted vessels from Tepe Yahya Phases IVC2-IVB6 (SEIP Group A)

, ? The ceramic assemblage from Shahr Daraz is paralleled to Bampur Period IV, vol.263, 1970.

, The Stein collection of the PMAE from Katukan includes a fragment of a bowl with a swastika motif made with hatched branches (Kat.7), a rim sherd with an outside frieze probably filled with triangles and a palm motif painted inside (Kat.8), and a complete bowl with the same outside decoration (Kat.018). These ceramics are comparable in decorations, forms and manufacture to those of SEIP Group A materials from Tepe Yahya IVC2-IVB6, Kech-Makran Late Period IIIa (especially 182 The Proto-Elamite Settlement and Its Neighbors in that the swastika is made with hatched branches, 1937.

, ? The material from Damin can be compared to that of Bampur Periods III-VI (De Cardi 1970:263, 297, 305, 318, tab. 3; Stein 1937:pls XI-XII; Tosi 1970:11). Incised grey ware was also reported from this site

, Gabro Maro (Saravan) is mentioned as a site related to Bampur Periods IV-V (De Cardi: 1970:265, figs. 13-14, tab. 3). Nearby, at Robahok material resembling the Bampur IV-V assemblage as well as components connected to Khurab and Shahi-Tump is reported. A third millennium BC dating for this site is most likely, while the parallels to Shahi-Tump could indicate that it was occupied in the mid-late fourth millennium BC too

, Approximately 130 km northeast of Tepe Bampur Iblis IV/V-related Aliabad ware and third millennium BC (Yahya Periods IVC-IVB) pottery are reported at several places in the Kash area, 1976.

, One sherd from this area has a palm motif (Marucheck 1976:282, fig. 11, n?5). Nearby, third millennium BC material (Yahya Periods IVC-IVB) was also reported from Shandala and Dahnag areas, Prickett 1986a:1331), 1976.

, Material from this area can be connected to Kech-Makran Early and Late Period IIIa assemblage such as Fan.015b (a bowl noted by Sir M. A. Stein with a painted swastika inside) and Fan.016 in the collection of the PMAE. Of particular interest is a goblet of painted, grey ware that can be linked to those observed at Tepe Yahya IVC2-IVB6 and Shahr-i Sokhta Period I. Southwest of the Fanuch area cairns were reported from Sadaich which M. Prickett included within Yahya Periods IVC-IVB sites (Prickett 1986a:1326). Close to the coast and the Pakistani border, the site "GZ" (Ghazab) was reported as a possible Yahya IVC-IVB related site (Prickett 1986a:1327). One sherd from this site -ridged and painted -observed in the collection of the PMAE indicates a third millennium BC occupation, third millennium BC sherds were collected by Sir M. A. Stein in the area of Fanuch, 1937.

T. Bampur, The material illustrated from Damba Koh may also be connected to the third millennium BC assemblage from the Bampur Valley and Kech-Makran, The dating of Qalat-e Jamshid, 1937.

, IV/V ceramics are reported as well as painted, grey ware that could date to the third millennium BC (Prickett 1986a:1289 note 11, 1321) or perhaps to an earlier date

. Saiyyidabad, XXV) is reminiscent of Yahya Period IVB material, 1937.

, Besides the painted material, a few sherds of beveled-rim bowls from Miri Qalat provide a connection to the Proto-Elamite period in Kech-Makran Late Period IIIa (Besenval 2005:5-6). Broadly speaking it appears that the number of reported sites Distribution of the Ceramic Traditions 183 increased from Period II to Period IIIa in Kech-Makran, with a dramatic increase from Late Period IIIa, Pakistani Kech-Makran As indicated above, the Kech-Makran area in southwestern Pakistan provides numerous parallels for the fine, 2005.

, Shahr-i Sokhta appears as a unique site in Seistan at times contemporary with Period I. In the following periods, from Period II in the third millennium BC, the site has ceramic relations to the south: at Tepe Bampur, Tepe Yahya Period IVB, Konar Sandal sites, and Kech-Makran from Periods IIIb-IIIc. The number of sites increases in the third millennium BC in Seistan with 28 sites of Shahr-i Sokhta Periods II-IV. Shahr-i Sokhta in Periods II-IV becomes an imposing settlement while neighboring Rud-i Biyaban, a ceramic production center, Balochistan Ceramic Complex recovered from Tepe Yahya Phases IVC2-IVB6, Kech-Makran Late Period IIIa, and sites in the Bampur Valley, 1961.

, The Bardsir Plain and Takab Plain areas Evidence for settlements roughly contemporary with Tepe Yahya Phases IVC2-IVB6 are reported from the Bardsir Plain, located about 160 km north of Tepe Yahya, in north-central Kerman. This evidence consists of Uruk/Proto-Elamite ceramics recovered from ill-preserved contexts assigned to Periods IV to VI at Tal-i Iblis, Period IV beveled-rim bowls, vol.184, 1967.

, J. Caldwell proposed that Period IV ranged from 3600 BC to around 3000 BC. Ceramic parallels indicate that Period VI is probably not later than the early third millennium BC, beveled-rim bowl sherds, four trough spouts, and materials connected to Tepe Sialk Period IV. In addition, slipped painted fragments and a low-sided tray from Level 1 were illustrated, vol.188, pp.179-180, 1967.

, Tepe Yahya Phases IVC2-IVB6. As indicated by this author, these periods need better definition, pp.18-19, 1987.

S. M. , Sajjadi indicated that the surveys conducted by him and J. Caldwell in the Bardsir area enabled them to identify 20 sites 54 dated to the second half of the fourth and early third millennia BC and related to Iblis Periods IV-VI (Sajjadi, vol.87, pp.18-19, 1987.

, Tal-i Iblis), 138, and 139; and sites with Iblis VI 184 The Proto-Elamite Settlement and Its Neighbors (Najefarabad) component are: sites 106, Tal-i Iblis), and perhaps Ghobeira, vol.106, p.137

. Site, few fragments could be assigned to periods IV and V of the Iblis sequence

, the sample seems to have been partly intermediary between Caldwell's Aliabad (Iblis IV) and Mashiz Plain (Iblis V), ? Site 002

. Site, these ceramics are unquestionably to the Mashiz Painted, and Mashiz Plain types, and find comparative shapes in the morphology of Caldwell's Mashiz horizon, vol.32, 1987.

. Site, the ceramic complex can be classified as Iblis IV, vol.33, 1987.

. Site, the prehistoric pottery of this site matches sherds of the Ghobeira and Iblis sequence (Iblis V), p.33, 1987.

. Site, there are some sherds like those of Aliabad and Mashiz assemblages (Iblis IV and V)

, the rest of them are comparable with Iblis sequence IV, V, and VI, the Aliabad, Mashiz and Najefabad phases, ? Site, vol.121, 1987.

. Tall-e-ali-mirzai, the pottery of this site is typologically alike those of Iblis II, III, and possibly V, ? Site, vol.122

S. M. , Meanwhile, conversely, he notes that the only Iblis Period VI site is site 121 (Sajjadi 1987:37). In any case, there was a dramatic decrease in terms of occupations from the late fourth millennium BC, Sajjadi observed that during Iblis Period IV, the number of sites continued to decrease in the Bardsir Plain, while in the following Period V, sites increased and new sites were established, vol.52, pp.37-38, 1987.

, Evidence for Iblis IV/V occupations is also at Tepe Langar, a site located ca. 30 km southeast of the city of Kerman (Lamberg-Karlovsky 1968:167), 1968.

, Prickett 1986a:1320), and at Shahdad to the northeast, 1976.

A. Hakemi, 76) mentioned materials collected in surveys in the Takab Plain and on the surface of Shahdad which he related to Shahr-i Sokhta Periods I-II, 1997.

Y. Va and L. Materials, The rest of the sequence in this area includes third millennium BC occupations (see Hakemi 1997:77-82; Salvatori and Tosi 1997) and there is no clear evidence of Proto-Elamite presence at Shahdad (Lamberg-Karlovsky 2001a:271). the exception of the synthesis offered in 1970 by C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky and the publications of the glyptic art by H. Pittman (2001) and the chlorite artifacts by, 1980.

, Fars the beginning of Lapui ware from the early fourth millennium BC and the existence of a transitional Lapui/Banesh phase have been confirmed recently by radiocarbon dating from samples from Tol-e Spid, vol.124, 2006.

, Radiocarbon dates from Tal-i Iblis do not exactly agree with this as they are mostly situated in the fifth millennium BC

, These sherds may also have come from the Persian Gulf; see Mutin, 2012.

, One may, however, suggest that limestone could have come from other sources located in Iran

. Cortesi, It is thought that Uruk-related materials are associated with Aliabad ware at Tal-i Iblis from Period IV, whereas they appear posterior to this type of ceramic production at Mahtoutabad, a site located in the Halil Rud Valley, The emergence of Uruk-related assemblages in Kerman is, however, not totally clear, pp.8-9, 2008.

F. , Vallat dates the first attestation of the name Elam to around 2650 BC, 1998.

, As it has been illustrated recently by the investigations in the Mamasani district in Fars (Potts and Roustaei 2006) and at Tepe Arisman in Isfahan, 2011.

, The evidence at Tepe Arisman mostly consists of remains of metallurgical activities

J. K. Dahl-;-r and . Englund, ) notes that all the ideograms on the numero-ideographic tablets of the last Late Uruk period "represented the objects of the transaction, including sheep and goats and products derived from them, above all textiles and dairy oils, pp.214-229, 1998.

, As for the lion represented with joined fists observed on certain Proto-Elamite seal impressions (Amiet 1980:pl. 37 n?580), it has a direct counterpart in statuary with a lioness from a private collection, probably made in magnesite (Porada 1950; Amiet 1980:pl. 37 n?579). A gazelle made in silver, pp.5-8, 0280.

, the wall that enclosed this site in the Late Banesh period, and the layout of the houses excavated at Tepe Arisman. W. Sumner (1985:159) noted with the wall of Tal-i Malyan: "(?) we see that a construction crew of 1,000 men could make the bricks and raise the walls in about 140 working days in one summer. (?) it is clear that local authority was sufficient to direct planning, to assert eminent domain over the required land, to procure materials, to mobilize labour, and to oversee construction

, In detail, a few ceramics that one would assign to Early Period IIIa bear swastika-like motifs, but these vessels are extremely rare in this context, and Endnotes 222 The Proto-Elamite Settlement and Its Neighbors the motifs are not designed in the same maneer as those of Late Period IIIa. Also, the exact date of the end of Aliabad, One can, however, expect a gradual transition between Early and Late Period IIIa

, After Fairservis, 1956.

, The definition of these styles has been challenged by recent excavations conducted at Sohr Damb/Nal by U. Franke. She found at this site both Togau A-D and Kechi-Beg ceramics in Period I. The scheme presented here seems, however, still roughly valid. U. Franke places Period I between 4000/3800 and 3200 BC, which overlaps the mid-fourth millennium BC (Görsdorf and Franke, 2007.

, Togau ware was found in great quantities at Miri Qalat in Period IIIa. It is also reported from survey collection

, Franke distinguishes typical Quetta ware as observed at Mehrgarh Period VI and Sohr Damb Period II (a few sherds) from a later style characterized by simple lines and bracket motives found in Mehrgarh Period VII/Nausharo IA-C and Sohr Damb Period III, pp.660-661, 2008.

V. , Sarianidi compared the burials from Mundigak III and those from Turkmenistan in Periods Namazga III and IV

, Continuation is attested by manufacture techniques: Vandiver, p.651, 1995.

R. P. Wright, , p.666, 1995.

, A recent reappraisal of the ceramic manufacturing techniques from Ulug-Depe shows that rotating devices were used but only for the finishing process, 2010.

, The Period IVB assemblage is, nonetheless, only partly described here, as the totality of the materials for this period was not considered. The Period IVB materials found in Phases IVC2-IVB6 contexts included in the present analysis (124 sherds) represent a limited selection of materials of this period recovered from Phases IVC2-IVB6; additional materials were observed in the collection. The types selected here, however

, As noted above

, See Van der Leeuw, 1976.

, Group 1 corresponds to Wentworth scale's category "Very fine sand"; Group 2 corresponds to "Fine sand" and "Medium sand

, Style refers to R. P. Wright's definition, pp.353-354, 1984.

, When these small finds were not assigned a number, they have been registered with an "ad" meaning "additional" small find

, For a full description of these periods, see Lamberg-Karlovsky and Beale, 1986.

, The Trenches B-BW North section was already published (Lamberg-Karlovsky 1970:figs 7, 12

. Ca, 50 meter when one considers the height of the building only; ca. 1 meter when Potts's Phases IVC2 to IVB6 are considered

, As noted before, the definition of Phase IVC1 made by D. T. Potts is not the same as that offered before by C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky. Also, while in C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky's opinion Phase IVC1 is slightly later than Phase IVC2, D. T. Potts envisages it as a much more recent phase

, Pit 4 might be the same as Pit 14, and Pit 4 and Pit 9 are noted as dug from Period IVB levels (Lamberg-Karlovsky and, p.136, 1986.

, Evidence from Mahtoutabad tends to show that Uruk-related materials appeared after Aliabad ware

, One can notice a mineral-tempered painted ceramic from the ABC Operation of Tal-i Malyan with a 26 cm rim diameter that has a similar profile, pp.48-49, 2003.

, Concerning the low-sided trays, complete profile corresponds to vessels with a portion preserved from the rim to the base

R. J. Although, Matthews has reported a single tray only, and they seem rare at Abu Salabikh

, One could add sherds from Susa, Acropole I Level 14A (Le Brun 1971:fig, vol.65, pp.11-12

, And, as indicated above, some of the sherds bearing slip and paint only may have been part of jars with appliqué decoration

, As suggested by D. S. Whitcomb which he referred to as Proto-Elamite, p.60, 1971.

, The bowl with a swastika motif from Khurab (Lamberg-Karlovsky and Schmandt-Besserat 1977:fig. 6 n?14) seems more connected to Kech-Makran Period IIIb than to Period IIIa; the swastika is made using lines instead of hatched branches

, A small series of sherds discussed below within Groups B-D might also be considered imitations of Group A ceramics

, Yahya 0248 was reconstructed with eight sherds from context CW.73.1.5 and two sherds from context CW.73.T1.4.1. The latter context was assigned to Phase IVC2, Area G, while no information was obtained regarding the former

, Uruk occupation of Godin Tepe is considered belonging to the very end of the Late Uruk period and included within a transitional phase just prior to the Proto-Elamite period (see also Algaze, vol.57, 2005.

, This ceramic was assigned to Period IVC (Lamberg-Karlovsky 1972:fig. 3F) and then to Period IVB (Lamberg-Karlovsky and Tosi 1973:fig. 126 B)

D. T. Potts, ) provides an updated inventory of the presence of beveled-rim bowls in Iran, 2009.

, See also Lamberg-Karlovsky and Tosi 1973:figs. 124-125 for additional illustrations of copper objects assigned to Period IVC

P. Damerow and R. K. Englund, 62 note 167) note that these objects have length and width similar to the inscribed tablets, but not always the same thickness, They were locally made (Lamberg-Karlovsky and, p.107, 1989.

, The same parameters have recently been used at Tepe Arisman, 2011.

, Previously noted as IVB6-5 contaminated

M. However and . Prickett, 218) noted at the same time that eight scatter sites with ceramics of the previous period -Iblis IV/V -continued "into Yahya Period IVC with a few diagnostic sherds. These scatter sites do not have the large number or full range of Yahya IVC diagnostic ceramics that would indicate a substantial Yahya IVC population, Lamberg-Karlovsky and Schmandt-Besserat, p.88, 1977.

, Twenty-one sites with material dating to the second half of the fourth millennium BC are, however, reported in Sajjadi, 1987.

, This chronological bracket is in southern Mesopotamia mostly posterior to Nippur Levels XVI-XV and Uruk Eanna Levels V-IV in the Late Uruk period, and includes Nippur Levels XIV-XII, Jemdet-Nasr, and Sin Temple Levels II-III in the Jemdet-Nasr period, and Nippur Level XI and Sin Temple Level IV in the early Early Dynastic I, vol.56, pp.208-210, 1994.

, The basin fund in Area B and the drainage system identified across the building complex may indicate that rain water was collected and used in the complex. Water sources in the vicinity of Tepe Yahya were used at that time as mentioned by

, The amounts of beveled-rim bowl sherds found at the site are not so negligible and they seem to have been used as "disposable products

, This, however, would mean that if an additional Proto-Elamite occupation occurred after the abandonment of the building, Phases IVC1-IVB6)

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