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Glycaemic response after intake of a high energy, high protein, diabetes-specific formula in older malnourished or at risk of malnutrition type 2 diabetes patients

Abstract : Background & aims: Several studies with diabetes-specific formulas (DSFs) for hyperglycaemic patients in need of nutritional support have been conducted in non-malnourished patients, mainly comparing products with varying macronutrient compositions. Here, the effect of a high energy, high protein DSF on postprandial responses was compared to a product with a similar macronutrient composition in malnourished or at risk of malnutrition patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In this randomised, double-blind cross-over study, 20 patients were included. After overnight fasting, patients consumed 200 mL of a DSF or standard supplement (control) (19.6 g protein, 31.2 g carbohydrates and 10.6 g fat), while continuing their anti-diabetic medication. The formulas differed in type of carbohydrates and presence of fibre. The postprandial glucose, insulin and glucagon responses were monitored over 4 h. Data were analysed with a Linear Mixed Model, and results of the modified ITT population (n = 19) are shown. Results: Postprandial glucose response as incremental area under the curve (iAUC), was lower after consumption of DSF compared with control (489.7 ± 268.5 (mean ± SD) vs 581.3 ± 273.9 mmol/L min, respectively; p = 0.008). Also, the incremental maximum concentration of glucose (iCmax) was lower for DSF vs control (3.5 ± 1.4 vs 4.0 ± 1.4 mmol/L; p = 0.007). Postprandial insulin and glucagon levels, expressed as iAUC or iCmax, were not significantly different between groups. Conclusions: Consumption of a high energy, high protein DSF by older malnourished or at risk of malnutrition type 2 diabetes patients resulted in a significantly lower glucose response compared to control. These data suggest that the use of a DSF is preferred for patients with diabetes in need of nutritional support.
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Hamid Laksir, Mirian Lansink, Sophie Regueme, Johan de Vogel-van den Bosch, Andreas F.H. Pfeiffer, et al.. Glycaemic response after intake of a high energy, high protein, diabetes-specific formula in older malnourished or at risk of malnutrition type 2 diabetes patients. Clinical Nutrition, Elsevier, 2018, 37 (6, Part A), pp.2084-2090. ⟨10.1016/j.clnu.2017.09.027⟩. ⟨hal-02421195⟩

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