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Journal Articles Prog.Part.Nucl.Phys. Year : 2020

High-luminosity Large Hadron Collider with laser-cooled isoscalar ion beams

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The existing CERN accelerator infrastructure is world unique and its research capacity should be fully exploited. In the coming decade its principal modus operandi will be focused on producing intense proton beams, accelerating and colliding them at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with the highest achievable luminosity. This activity should, in our view, be complemented by new initiatives and their feasibility studies targeted on re-using the existing CERN accelerator complex in novel ways that were not conceived when the machines were designed. They should provide attractive, ready-to-implement research options for the forthcoming paradigm-shift phase of the CERN research. This paper presents one of the case studies of the Gamma Factory initiative (Krasny, 2015) – a proposal of a new operation scheme of ion beams in the CERN accelerator complex. Its goal is to extend the scope and precision of the LHC-based research by complementing the proton–proton collision programme with the high-luminosity nucleus–nucleus one. Its numerous physics highlights include studies of the exclusive Higgs-boson production in photon–photon collisions and precision measurements of the electroweak (EW) parameters. There are two principal ways to increase the LHC luminosity which do not require an upgrade of the CERN injectors: (1) modification of the beam-collision optics and (2) reduction of the transverse emittance of the colliding beams. The former scheme is employed by the ongoing high-luminosity (HL-LHC) project. The latter one, applicable only to ion beams, is proposed in this paper. It is based on laser cooling of bunches of partially stripped ions at the SPS flat-top energy. For isoscalar calcium beams, which fulfil the present beam-operation constrains and which are particularly attractive for the EW physics, the transverse beam emittance can be reduced by a factor of 5 within the 8 seconds long cooling phase. The predicted nucleon–nucleon luminosity of LNN=4.2×1034 s −1 cm −2 for collisions of the cooled calcium beams at the LHC top energy is comparable to the levelled luminosity for the HL-LHC proton–proton collisions, but with reduced pile-up background. The scheme proposed in this paper, if confirmed by the future Gamma Factory proof-of-principle experiment, could be implemented at CERN with minor infrastructure investments.
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hal-02542849 , version 1 (22-08-2022)


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M.W. Krasny, A. Petrenko, W. Płaczek. High-luminosity Large Hadron Collider with laser-cooled isoscalar ion beams. Prog.Part.Nucl.Phys., 2020, 114, pp.103792. ⟨10.1016/j.ppnp.2020.103792⟩. ⟨hal-02542849⟩
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