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Journal Articles Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis Year : 2021

Chromatographic analysis of biomolecules with pressurized carbon dioxide mobile phases – A review

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Jérémy Molineau
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Caroline West

Abstract

Biomolecules like proteins, peptides and nucleic acids widely emerge in pharmaceutical applications, either as synthetic active pharmaceutical ingredients, or from natural products as in traditional Chinese medicine. Liquid-phase chromatographic methods (LC) are widely employed for the analysis and/or purification of such molecules. On another hand, to answer the ever-increasing requests from scientists involved in biomolecules projects, other chromatographic methods emerge as useful complements to LC. In particular, there is a growing interest for chromatography with a mobile phase comprising pressurized carbon dioxide, which can be named either (i) supercritical (or subcritical) fluid chromatography (SFC) when CO2 is the major constituent of the mobile phase, or (ii) enhanced fluidity liquid chromatography (EFLC) when hydro-organic or purely organic solvents are the major constituents of the mobile phase. Despite the low polarity of CO2, supposedly inadequate to solubilize such biomolecules, SFC and EFLC were both employed in many occasions for this purpose. This paper specifically reviews the literature related to the SFC/EFLC analysis of free amino acids, peptides, proteins, nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides. The analytical conditions employed for specific molecular families are presented, with a focus on the nature of the stationary phase and the mobile phase composition. We also discuss the potential benefits of combining SFC/EFLC to LC in a single gradient elution, a method sometimes designated as unified chromatography (UC). Finally, detection issues are presented, and more particularly hyphenation to mass spectrometry.
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hal-03492745 , version 1 (21-11-2022)

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Attribution - NonCommercial - CC BY 4.0

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Jérémy Molineau, Maria Hideux, Caroline West. Chromatographic analysis of biomolecules with pressurized carbon dioxide mobile phases – A review. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 2021, 193, pp.113736 -. ⟨10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113736⟩. ⟨hal-03492745⟩
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